The broad Portfolio Thinking approach concentrates on one's contribution, value, and responsibility to the organization. This approach requires individualized coaching, perhaps technology-based knowledge management, and most of all, an environment that fosters communication. Training needs are identified during coaching sessions.
2. Command and Control
This is the traditional "performance appraisal" process. It uses the annual performance assessment so that supervisor and employee will have a mutual understanding and expectation of what is to be accomplished and how they are supposed to do it. Ideally, this approach also focuses on an employee's development plan. The goals and objectives should help the employee understand that their accountabilities have a real part in making this vision a reality. By concentrating on core competencies, command and control exercises encourage leaders to emphasize the direction the enterprise has mapped out through core competencies. Training needs are identified during performance assessment review sessions.
3. Balanced Scorecard
The balanced scorecard, BSC, is a framework for translating an organization's vision into a set of performance indicators. These are often linked to key areas such as: financial management, customer service, internal business processes, and employee learning. Training needs are identified during review of employee performance in key areas. Through the BSC, an organization monitors individual's current performance. It also serves as an indicator of efforts to improve processes, motivate and educate employees, and enhance work processes.
4. Multi-level Evaluation
Multi-level evaluations take many forms: 360 feedback, multi-source feedback, multi-rater assessment, upward feedback, or peer evaluation. Basically, each of these terms describes the process in which employees evaluate themselves. Next, others evaluate them or they evaluate others. One frequent approach is that employees receive a gap analysis detailing how they perceive themselves versus how others perceive them. Training needs are identified in the feedback process.